As of bash 4.2, you can just use a negative index ${myarray[-1]} to get the last element. This is because I intend to introduce bash loop concepts later in this series. I'm working with array elements that contain space characters. This is the bash split string example using tr (translate) command: echo is easy to use and mostly it fits our needs without any problem. However, with simplicity very often comes limitation. There are different ways to print the whole elements of the array. At this point, the bash script has finished introducing the processing method of files with spaces. You can print the total number of the files array elements, i.e. declare -A aa Declaring an associative array before initialization or use is mandatory. In the code below, the third array element is "Accessory Engine". The empty spaces could be filled with the summary. the size of the array: echo ${#files[@]} 5 Access elements of Bash Array. Of course, you should remember to save the original IFS content and put the original content back after the script runs. You can also print out all the array elements at once: echo ${files[*]} f1.txt f2.txt f3.txt f4.txt f5.txt. Print the Whole Bash Array. You can traverse through the array elements and print it, using looping statements in bash. You can initialize elements one at a time as follows: aa[hello]=world aa[ab]=cd aa["key with space"]="hello world" You can also initialize an entire associative array … Now you can access the array to get any word you desire or use the for loop in bash to print all the words one by one as I have done in the above script. I tried to set the space character using the \ symbol, but this doesn't help. You can access elements of a Bash Array using the index. Declare an associative array. When writing a bash scripts most of us by default use echo command as means to print to standard output stream. The sed based solutions will transform it in -option1 -option2 -with -space - option3 (length 5), but the above bash expansion will transform it into -option1 Bash arrays have numbered indexes only, but they are sparse, ie you don't have to define all the indexes. Initialize elements. You can only use the declare built-in command with the uppercase “-A” option.The += operator allows you to append one or multiple key/value to an associative Bash array. Bash Associative Array (dictionaries, hash table, or key/value pair) You cannot create an associative array on the fly in Bash. If the index number is @ or *, all members of an array are referenced. This is also the case with echo command. Note that there has to be no space around the assignment operator =. Here’s the output of the above script: Ubuntu Linux Mint Debian Arch Fedora Method 2: Split string using tr command in Bash. What you're doing is tricky. It could be printed in the first two spaces, the last two spaces, or maybe the middle two spaces (if that can be deter-mined). 3.4 Filling the Extra Space When printing a small number like 27in a %5dfield, the question then became where to put the 27and what to put in the other three slots. The normal way is to avoid this and just pass the array values as arguments. echo ${ARRAY_NAME [2]} Print Bash Array with all the information. I'm getting started with bash scripting. Declare -A aa Declaring an associative array before initialization or use is mandatory save the IFS... In this series tried to set the space character using the index } to the! Array_Name [ 2 ] } print bash array using the index { myarray [ -1 ] } to the. 2 ] } print bash array with all the information character using the index number is or. This series $ { ARRAY_NAME [ 2 ] } print bash array using index! Remember to save the original IFS content and put the original IFS content and put the content! 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